gio.MenuModel represents the contents of a menu -- an ordered list of menu items. The items are associated with actions, which can be activated through them. Items can be grouped in sections, and may have submenus associated with them. Both items and sections usually have some representation data, such as labels or icons. The type of the associated action (ie whether it is stateful, and what kind of state it has) can influence the representation of the item.
The conceptual model of menus in gio.MenuModel is hierarchical: sections and submenus are again represented by gio.MenuModels Menus themselves do not define their own roles. Rather, the role of a particular gio.MenuModel is defined by the item that references it (or, in the case of the 'root' menu, is defined by the context in which it is used).
As an example, consider the visible portions of this menu:
There are 8 "menus" visible in the screenshot: one menubar, two submenus and 5 sections:
- the toplevel menubar (containing 4 items) - the View submenu (containing 3 sections) - the first section of the View submenu (containing 2 items) - the second section of the View submenu (containing 1 item) - the final section of the View submenu (containing 1 item) - the Highlight Mode submenu (containing 2 sections) - the Sources section (containing 2 items) - the Markup section (containing 2 items)
The example[menu-model] illustrates the conceptual connection between these 8 menus. Each large block in the figure represents a menu and the smaller blocks within the large block represent items in that menu. Some items contain references to other menus.
Notice that the separators visible in the example[menu-example] appear nowhere in the [menu model][menu-model]. This is because separators are not explicitly represented in the menu model. Instead, a separator is inserted between any two non-empty sections of a menu. Section items can have labels just like any other item. In that case, a display system may show a section header instead of a separator.
The motivation for this abstract model of application controls is that modern user interfaces tend to make these controls available outside the application. Examples include global menus, jumplists, dash boards, etc. To support such uses, it is necessary to 'export' information about actions and their representation in menus, which is exactly what the [GActionGroup exporter][gio-GActionGroup-exporter] and the [GMenuModel exporter][gio-GMenuModel-exporter] do for gtk.ActionGroup and gio.MenuModel The client-side counterparts to make use of the exported information are gio.DBusActionGroup and gio.DBusMenuModel
The API of gio.MenuModel is very generic, with iterators for the attributes and links of an item, see Menu.modelIterateItemAttributes and Menu.modelIterateItemLinks. The 'standard' attributes and link types have predefined names: G_MENU_ATTRIBUTE_LABEL, G_MENU_ATTRIBUTE_ACTION, G_MENU_ATTRIBUTE_TARGET, G_MENU_LINK_SECTION and G_MENU_LINK_SUBMENU.
Items in a gio.MenuModel represent active controls if they refer to an action that can get activated when the user interacts with the menu item. The reference to the action is encoded by the string id in the G_MENU_ATTRIBUTE_ACTION attribute. An action id uniquely identifies an action in an action group. Which action group(s) provide actions depends on the context in which the menu model is used. E.g. when the model is exported as the application menu of a gtk.Application, actions can be application-wide or window-specific (and thus come from two different action groups). By convention, the application-wide actions have names that start with "app.", while the names of window-specific actions start with "win.".
While a wide variety of stateful actions is possible, the following is the minimum that is expected to be supported by all users of exported menu information: - an action with no parameter type and no state - an action with no parameter type and boolean state - an action with string parameter type and string state
A stateless action typically corresponds to an ordinary menu item.
Selecting such a menu item will activate the action (with no parameter).
An action with a boolean state will most typically be used with a "toggle" or "switch" menu item. The state can be set directly, but activating the action (with no parameter) results in the state being toggled.
Selecting a toggle menu item will activate the action. The menu item should be rendered as "checked" when the state is true.
Actions with string parameters and state will most typically be used to represent an enumerated choice over the items available for a group of radio menu items. Activating the action with a string parameter is equivalent to setting that parameter as the state.
Radio menu items, in addition to being associated with the action, will have a target value. Selecting that menu item will result in activation of the action with the target value as the parameter. The menu item should be rendered as "selected" when the state of the action is equal to the target value of the menu item.
Sets our main struct and passes it to the parent class.
Emitted when a change has occured to the menu.
Queries the item at position item_index in model for the attribute specified by attribute.
Queries the item at position item_index in model for the link specified by link.
Get the main Gtk struct
Query the number of items in model.
the main Gtk struct as a void*
Queries if model is mutable.
Requests emission of the items-changed signal on model.
Creates a gio.MenuAttributeIter to iterate over the attributes of the item at position item_index in model.
Creates a gio.MenuLinkIter to iterate over the links of the item at position item_index in model.
the main Gtk struct
the main Gtk struct
Get the main Gtk struct
the main Gtk struct as a void*
Gets a D Object from the objects table of associations.
The notify signal is emitted on an object when one of its properties has been changed. Note that getting this signal doesn't guarantee that the value of the property has actually changed, it may also be emitted when the setter for the property is called to reinstate the previous value.
Find the gobject.ParamSpec with the given name for an interface. Generally, the interface vtable passed in as g_iface will be the default vtable from g_type_default_interface_ref(), or, if you know the interface has already been loaded, g_type_default_interface_peek().
Add a property to an interface; this is only useful for interfaces that are added to GObject-derived types. Adding a property to an interface forces all objects classes with that interface to have a compatible property. The compatible property could be a newly created gobject.ParamSpec, but normally ObjectClass.overrideProperty will be used so that the object class only needs to provide an implementation and inherits the property description, default value, bounds, and so forth from the interface property.
Lists the properties of an interface.Generally, the interface vtable passed in as g_iface will be the default vtable from g_type_default_interface_ref(), or, if you know the interface has already been loaded, g_type_default_interface_peek().
Increases the reference count of the object by one and sets a callback to be called when all other references to the object are dropped, or when this is already the last reference to the object and another reference is established.
Adds a weak reference from weak_pointer to object to indicate that the pointer located at weak_pointer_location is only valid during the lifetime of object. When the object is finalized, weak_pointer will be set to NULL.
Creates a binding between source_property on source and target_property on target. Whenever the source_property is changed the target_property is updated using the same value. For instance:
Complete version of g_object_bind_property().
Creates a binding between source_property on source and target_property on target, allowing you to set the transformation functions to be used by the binding.
This is a variant of g_object_get_data() which returns a 'duplicate' of the value. dup_func defines the meaning of 'duplicate' in this context, it could e.g. take a reference on a ref-counted object.
This is a variant of g_object_get_qdata() which returns a 'duplicate' of the value. dup_func defines the meaning of 'duplicate' in this context, it could e.g. take a reference on a ref-counted object.
Increases the freeze count on object. If the freeze count is non-zero, the emission of "notify" signals on object is stopped. The signals are queued until the freeze count is decreased to zero. Duplicate notifications are squashed so that at most one notify signal is emitted for each property modified while the object is frozen.
Gets a named field from the objects table of associations (see g_object_set_data()).
Gets a property of an object. value must have been initialized to the expected type of the property (or a type to which the expected type can be transformed) using Value.init.
This function gets back user data pointers stored via g_object_set_qdata().
Gets properties of an object.
Gets n_properties properties for an object. Obtained properties will be set to values. All properties must be valid. Warnings will be emitted and undefined behaviour may result if invalid properties are passed in.
Checks whether object has a floating[floating-ref] reference.
Emits a "notify" signal for the property property_name on object.
Emits a "notify" signal for the property specified by pspec on object.
Increases the reference count of object.
Increase the reference count of object, and possibly remove the floating[floating-ref] reference, if object has a floating reference.
Removes a reference added with g_object_add_toggle_ref(). The reference count of the object is decreased by one.
Removes a weak reference from object that was previously added using g_object_add_weak_pointer(). The weak_pointer_location has to match the one used with g_object_add_weak_pointer().
Compares the user data for the key key on object with oldval, and if they are the same, replaces oldval with newval.
Compares the user data for the key quark on object with oldval, and if they are the same, replaces oldval with newval.
Releases all references to other objects. This can be used to break reference cycles.
Each object carries around a table of associations from strings to pointers. This function lets you set an association.
Like g_object_set_data() except it adds notification for when the association is destroyed, either by setting it to a different value or when the object is destroyed.
Sets a property on an object.
This sets an opaque, named pointer on an object. The name is specified through a GQuark (retrived e.g. via g_quark_from_static_string()), and the pointer can be gotten back from the object with g_object_get_qdata() until the object is finalized. Setting a previously set user data pointer, overrides (frees) the old pointer set, using NULL as pointer essentially removes the data stored.
This function works like g_object_set_qdata(), but in addition, a void (*destroy) (gpointer) function may be specified which is called with data as argument when the object is finalized, or the data is being overwritten by a call to g_object_set_qdata() with the same quark.
Sets properties on an object.
Sets n_properties properties for an object. Properties to be set will be taken from values. All properties must be valid. Warnings will be emitted and undefined behaviour may result if invalid properties are passed in.
Remove a specified datum from the object's data associations, without invoking the association's destroy handler.
This function gets back user data pointers stored via g_object_set_qdata() and removes the data from object without invoking its destroy() function (if any was set). Usually, calling this function is only required to update user data pointers with a destroy notifier, for example:
Reverts the effect of a previous call to g_object_freeze_notify(). The freeze count is decreased on object and when it reaches zero, queued "notify" signals are emitted.
Decreases the reference count of object. When its reference count drops to 0, the object is finalized (i.e. its memory is freed).
This function essentially limits the life time of the closure to the life time of the object. That is, when the object is finalized, the closure is invalidated by calling Closure.invalidate on it, in order to prevent invocations of the closure with a finalized (nonexisting) object. Also, g_object_ref() and g_object_unref() are added as marshal guards to the closure, to ensure that an extra reference count is held on object during invocation of the closure. Usually, this function will be called on closures that use this object as closure data.
Adds a weak reference callback to an object. Weak references are used for notification when an object is finalized. They are called "weak references" because they allow you to safely hold a pointer to an object without calling g_object_ref() (g_object_ref() adds a strong reference, that is, forces the object to stay alive).
Removes a weak reference callback to an object.
Clears a reference to a GObject