Application

A gio.Application is the foundation of an application. It wraps some low-level platform-specific services and is intended to act as the foundation for higher-level application classes such as gtk.Application or gio.Application In general, you should not use this class outside of a higher level framework.

GApplication provides convenient life cycle management by maintaining a "use count" for the primary application instance. The use count can be changed using Application.hold and Application.release. If it drops to zero, the application exits. Higher-level classes such as gtk.Application employ the use count to ensure that the application stays alive as long as it has any opened windows.

Another feature that GApplication (optionally) provides is process uniqueness. Applications can make use of this functionality by providing a unique application ID. If given, only one application with this ID can be running at a time per session. The session concept is platform-dependent, but corresponds roughly to a graphical desktop login. When your application is launched again, its arguments are passed through platform communication to the already running program. The already running instance of the program is called the "primary instance"; for non-unique applications this is the always the current instance. On Linux, the D-Bus session bus is used for communication.

The use of gio.Application differs from some other commonly-used uniqueness libraries (such as libunique) in important ways. The application is not expected to manually register itself and check if it is the primary instance. Instead, the main() function of a gio.Application should do very little more than instantiating the application instance, possibly connecting signal handlers, then calling Application.run. All checks for uniqueness are done internally. If the application is the primary instance then the startup signal is emitted and the mainloop runs. If the application is not the primary instance then a signal is sent to the primary instance and Application.run promptly returns. See the code examples below.

If used, the expected form of an application identifier is very close to that of of a D-Bus bus name. Examples include: "com.example.MyApp", "org.example.internal-apps.Calculator". For details on valid application identifiers, see Application.idIsValid.

On Linux, the application identifier is claimed as a well-known bus name on the user's session bus. This means that the uniqueness of your application is scoped to the current session. It also means that your application may provide additional services (through registration of other object paths) at that bus name. The registration of these object paths should be done with the shared GDBus session bus. Note that due to the internal architecture of GDBus, method calls can be dispatched at any time (even if a main loop is not running). For this reason, you must ensure that any object paths that you wish to register are registered before gio.Application attempts to acquire the bus name of your application (which happens in Application.register). Unfortunately, this means that you cannot use Application.getIsRemote to decide if you want to register object paths.

GApplication also implements the gtk.ActionGroup and GActionMap interfaces and lets you easily export actions by adding them with Action.mapAddAction. When invoking an action by calling Action.groupActivateAction on the application, it is always invoked in the primary instance. The actions are also exported on the session bus, and GIO provides the gio.DBusActionGroup wrapper to conveniently access them remotely. GIO provides a gio.DBusMenuModel wrapper for remote access to exported gio.MenuModels

There is a number of different entry points into a GApplication:

- via 'Activate' (i.e. just starting the application)

- via 'Open' (i.e. opening some files)

- by handling a command-line

- via activating an action

The startup signal lets you handle the application initialization for all of these in a single place.

Regardless of which of these entry points is used to start the application, GApplication passes some "platform data from the launching instance to the primary instance, in the form of a glib.Variant dictionary mapping strings to variants. To use platform data, override the before_emit or after_emit virtual functions in your gio.Application subclass. When dealing with gio.ApplicationCommandLine objects, the platform data is directly available via Application.commandLineGetCwd, Application.commandLineGetEnviron and Application.commandLineGetPlatformData.

As the name indicates, the platform data may vary depending on the operating system, but it always includes the current directory (key "cwd"), and optionally the environment (ie the set of environment variables and their values) of the calling process (key "environ"). The environment is only added to the platform data if the G_APPLICATION_SEND_ENVIRONMENT flag is set. gio.Application subclasses can add their own platform data by overriding the add_platform_data virtual function. For instance, gtk.Application adds startup notification data in this way.

To parse commandline arguments you may handle the command-line signal or override the local_command_line() vfunc, to parse them in either the primary instance or the local instance, respectively.

For an example of opening files with a GApplication, see gapplication-example-open.c.

For an example of using actions with GApplication, see gapplication-example-actions.c.

For an example of using extra D-Bus hooks with GApplication, see gapplication-example-dbushooks.c.

class Application : ObjectG , ActionGroupIF , ActionMapIF {}

Constructors

this
this(GApplication* gApplication, bool ownedRef = false)

Sets our main struct and passes it to the parent class.

this
this(string applicationId, GApplicationFlags flags)

Creates a new gio.Application instance.

Members

Functions

activate
void activate()

Activates the application.

addMainOption
void addMainOption(string longName, char shortName, GOptionFlags flags, GOptionArg arg, string description, string argDescription)

Add an option to be handled by application.

addMainOptionEntries
void addMainOptionEntries(GOptionEntry[] entries)

Adds main option entries to be handled by application.

addOnActivate
gulong addOnActivate(void delegate(Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::activate signal is emitted on the primary instance when an activation occurs. See Application.activate.

addOnCommandLine
gulong addOnCommandLine(int delegate(Scoped!ApplicationCommandLine, Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::command-line signal is emitted on the primary instance when a commandline is not handled locally. See Application.run and the gio.ApplicationCommandLine documentation for more information.

addOnCommandLine
gulong addOnCommandLine(int delegate(ApplicationCommandLine, Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::command-line signal is emitted on the primary instance when a commandline is not handled locally. See Application.run and the gio.ApplicationCommandLine documentation for more information.

addOnHandleLocalOptions
gulong addOnHandleLocalOptions(int delegate(VariantDict, Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::handle-local-options signal is emitted on the local instance after the parsing of the commandline options has occurred.

addOnOpen
gulong addOnOpen(void delegate(FileIF[], string, Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::open signal is emitted on the primary instance when there are files to open. See Application.open for more information.

addOnOpen
gulong addOnOpen(void delegate(void*, int, string, Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::open signal is emitted on the primary instance when there are files to open. See Application.open for more information.

addOnShutdown
gulong addOnShutdown(void delegate(Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::shutdown signal is emitted only on the registered primary instance immediately after the main loop terminates.

addOnStartup
gulong addOnStartup(void delegate(Application) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The ::startup signal is emitted on the primary instance immediately after registration. See Application.register.

addOptionGroup
void addOptionGroup(OptionGroup group)

Adds a glib.OptionGroup to the commandline handling of application.

bindBusyProperty
void bindBusyProperty(ObjectG object, string property)

Marks application as busy (see Application.markBusy) while property on object is TRUE.

getApplicationId
string getApplicationId()

Gets the unique identifier for application.

getApplicationStruct
GApplication* getApplicationStruct(bool transferOwnership = false)

Get the main Gtk struct

getDbusConnection
DBusConnection getDbusConnection()

Gets the gio.DBusConnection being used by the application, or NULL.

getDbusObjectPath
string getDbusObjectPath()

Gets the D-Bus object path being used by the application, or NULL.

getFlags
GApplicationFlags getFlags()

Gets the flags for application.

getInactivityTimeout
uint getInactivityTimeout()

Gets the current inactivity timeout for the application.

getIsBusy
bool getIsBusy()

Gets the application's current busy state, as set through Application.markBusy or Application.bindBusyProperty.

getIsRegistered
bool getIsRegistered()

Checks if application is registered.

getIsRemote
bool getIsRemote()

Checks if application is remote.

getResourceBasePath
string getResourceBasePath()

Gets the resource base path of application.

getStruct
void* getStruct()

the main Gtk struct as a void*

hold
void hold()

Increases the use count of application.

markBusy
void markBusy()

Increases the busy count of application.

open
void open(FileIF[] files, string hint)

Opens the given files.

quit
void quit()

Immediately quits the application.

register
bool register(Cancellable cancellable)

Attempts registration of the application.

release
void release()

Decrease the use count of application.

run
int run(string[] argv)

Runs the application.

sendNotification
void sendNotification(string id, Notification notification)

Sends a notification on behalf of application to the desktop shell. There is no guarantee that the notification is displayed immediately, or even at all.

setActionGroup
void setActionGroup(ActionGroupIF actionGroup)

This used to be how actions were associated with a gio.Application Now there is GActionMap for that.

setApplicationId
void setApplicationId(string applicationId)

Sets the unique identifier for application.

setDefault
void setDefault()

Sets or unsets the default application for the process, as returned by Application.getDefault.

setFlags
void setFlags(GApplicationFlags flags)

Sets the flags for application.

setInactivityTimeout
void setInactivityTimeout(uint inactivityTimeout)

Sets the current inactivity timeout for the application.

setOptionContextDescription
void setOptionContextDescription(string description)

Adds a description to the application option context.

setOptionContextParameterString
void setOptionContextParameterString(string parameterString)

Sets the parameter string to be used by the commandline handling of application.

setOptionContextSummary
void setOptionContextSummary(string summary)

Adds a summary to the application option context.

setResourceBasePath
void setResourceBasePath(string resourcePath)

Sets (or unsets) the base resource path of application.

unbindBusyProperty
void unbindBusyProperty(ObjectG object, string property)

Destroys a binding between property and the busy state of application that was previously created with Application.bindBusyProperty.

unmarkBusy
void unmarkBusy()

Decreases the busy count of application.

withdrawNotification
void withdrawNotification(string id)

Withdraws a notification that was sent with Application.sendNotification.

Static functions

getDefault
Application getDefault()

Returns the default gio.Application instance for this process.

getType
GType getType()
idIsValid
bool idIsValid(string applicationId)

Checks if application_id is a valid application identifier.

Variables

gApplication
GApplication* gApplication;

the main Gtk struct

Inherited Members

From ObjectG

gObject
GObject* gObject;

the main Gtk struct

getObjectGStruct
GObject* getObjectGStruct(bool transferOwnership = false)

Get the main Gtk struct

getStruct
void* getStruct()

the main Gtk struct as a void*

opCast
T opCast()
getDObject
RT getDObject(U obj, bool ownedRef = false)

Gets a D Object from the objects table of associations.

setProperty
void setProperty(string propertyName, T value)
addOnNotify
gulong addOnNotify(void delegate(ParamSpec, ObjectG) dlg, string property = "", ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

The notify signal is emitted on an object when one of its properties has been changed. Note that getting this signal doesn't guarantee that the value of the property has actually changed, it may also be emitted when the setter for the property is called to reinstate the previous value.

getType
GType getType()
compatControl
size_t compatControl(size_t what, void* data)
interfaceFindProperty
ParamSpec interfaceFindProperty(TypeInterface gIface, string propertyName)

Find the gobject.ParamSpec with the given name for an interface. Generally, the interface vtable passed in as g_iface will be the default vtable from g_type_default_interface_ref(), or, if you know the interface has already been loaded, g_type_default_interface_peek().

interfaceInstallProperty
void interfaceInstallProperty(TypeInterface gIface, ParamSpec pspec)

Add a property to an interface; this is only useful for interfaces that are added to GObject-derived types. Adding a property to an interface forces all objects classes with that interface to have a compatible property. The compatible property could be a newly created gobject.ParamSpec, but normally ObjectClass.overrideProperty will be used so that the object class only needs to provide an implementation and inherits the property description, default value, bounds, and so forth from the interface property.

interfaceListProperties
ParamSpec[] interfaceListProperties(TypeInterface gIface)

Lists the properties of an interface.Generally, the interface vtable passed in as g_iface will be the default vtable from g_type_default_interface_ref(), or, if you know the interface has already been loaded, g_type_default_interface_peek().

addToggleRef
void addToggleRef(GToggleNotify notify, void* data)

Increases the reference count of the object by one and sets a callback to be called when all other references to the object are dropped, or when this is already the last reference to the object and another reference is established.

addWeakPointer
void addWeakPointer(ref void* weakPointerLocation)

Adds a weak reference from weak_pointer to object to indicate that the pointer located at weak_pointer_location is only valid during the lifetime of object. When the object is finalized, weak_pointer will be set to NULL.

bindProperty
Binding bindProperty(string sourceProperty, ObjectG target, string targetProperty, GBindingFlags flags)

Creates a binding between source_property on source and target_property on target. Whenever the source_property is changed the target_property is updated using the same value. For instance:

bindPropertyFull
Binding bindPropertyFull(string sourceProperty, ObjectG target, string targetProperty, GBindingFlags flags, GBindingTransformFunc transformTo, GBindingTransformFunc transformFrom, void* userData, GDestroyNotify notify)

Complete version of g_object_bind_property().

bindPropertyWithClosures
Binding bindPropertyWithClosures(string sourceProperty, ObjectG target, string targetProperty, GBindingFlags flags, Closure transformTo, Closure transformFrom)

Creates a binding between source_property on source and target_property on target, allowing you to set the transformation functions to be used by the binding.

dupData
void* dupData(string key, GDuplicateFunc dupFunc, void* userData)

This is a variant of g_object_get_data() which returns a 'duplicate' of the value. dup_func defines the meaning of 'duplicate' in this context, it could e.g. take a reference on a ref-counted object.

dupQdata
void* dupQdata(GQuark quark, GDuplicateFunc dupFunc, void* userData)

This is a variant of g_object_get_qdata() which returns a 'duplicate' of the value. dup_func defines the meaning of 'duplicate' in this context, it could e.g. take a reference on a ref-counted object.

forceFloating
void forceFloating()

This function is intended for GObject implementations to re-enforce a floating[floating-ref] object reference. Doing this is seldom required: all GInitiallyUnowneds are created with a floating reference which usually just needs to be sunken by calling g_object_ref_sink().

freezeNotify
void freezeNotify()

Increases the freeze count on object. If the freeze count is non-zero, the emission of "notify" signals on object is stopped. The signals are queued until the freeze count is decreased to zero. Duplicate notifications are squashed so that at most one notify signal is emitted for each property modified while the object is frozen.

getData
void* getData(string key)

Gets a named field from the objects table of associations (see g_object_set_data()).

getProperty
void getProperty(string propertyName, Value value)

Gets a property of an object. value must have been initialized to the expected type of the property (or a type to which the expected type can be transformed) using Value.init.

getQdata
void* getQdata(GQuark quark)

This function gets back user data pointers stored via g_object_set_qdata().

getValist
void getValist(string firstPropertyName, void* varArgs)

Gets properties of an object.

getv
void getv(string[] names, Value[] values)

Gets n_properties properties for an object. Obtained properties will be set to values. All properties must be valid. Warnings will be emitted and undefined behaviour may result if invalid properties are passed in.

isFloating
bool isFloating()

Checks whether object has a floating[floating-ref] reference.

notify
void notify(string propertyName)

Emits a "notify" signal for the property property_name on object.

notifyByPspec
void notifyByPspec(ParamSpec pspec)

Emits a "notify" signal for the property specified by pspec on object.

doref
ObjectG doref()

Increases the reference count of object.

refSink
ObjectG refSink()

Increase the reference count of object, and possibly remove the floating[floating-ref] reference, if object has a floating reference.

removeToggleRef
void removeToggleRef(GToggleNotify notify, void* data)

Removes a reference added with g_object_add_toggle_ref(). The reference count of the object is decreased by one.

removeWeakPointer
void removeWeakPointer(ref void* weakPointerLocation)

Removes a weak reference from object that was previously added using g_object_add_weak_pointer(). The weak_pointer_location has to match the one used with g_object_add_weak_pointer().

replaceData
bool replaceData(string key, void* oldval, void* newval, GDestroyNotify destroy, out GDestroyNotify oldDestroy)

Compares the user data for the key key on object with oldval, and if they are the same, replaces oldval with newval.

replaceQdata
bool replaceQdata(GQuark quark, void* oldval, void* newval, GDestroyNotify destroy, out GDestroyNotify oldDestroy)

Compares the user data for the key quark on object with oldval, and if they are the same, replaces oldval with newval.

runDispose
void runDispose()

Releases all references to other objects. This can be used to break reference cycles.

setData
void setData(string key, void* data)

Each object carries around a table of associations from strings to pointers. This function lets you set an association.

setDataFull
void setDataFull(string key, void* data, GDestroyNotify destroy)

Like g_object_set_data() except it adds notification for when the association is destroyed, either by setting it to a different value or when the object is destroyed.

setProperty
void setProperty(string propertyName, Value value)

Sets a property on an object.

setQdata
void setQdata(GQuark quark, void* data)

This sets an opaque, named pointer on an object. The name is specified through a GQuark (retrived e.g. via g_quark_from_static_string()), and the pointer can be gotten back from the object with g_object_get_qdata() until the object is finalized. Setting a previously set user data pointer, overrides (frees) the old pointer set, using NULL as pointer essentially removes the data stored.

setQdataFull
void setQdataFull(GQuark quark, void* data, GDestroyNotify destroy)

This function works like g_object_set_qdata(), but in addition, a void (*destroy) (gpointer) function may be specified which is called with data as argument when the object is finalized, or the data is being overwritten by a call to g_object_set_qdata() with the same quark.

setValist
void setValist(string firstPropertyName, void* varArgs)

Sets properties on an object.

setv
void setv(string[] names, Value[] values)

Sets n_properties properties for an object. Properties to be set will be taken from values. All properties must be valid. Warnings will be emitted and undefined behaviour may result if invalid properties are passed in.

stealData
void* stealData(string key)

Remove a specified datum from the object's data associations, without invoking the association's destroy handler.

stealQdata
void* stealQdata(GQuark quark)

This function gets back user data pointers stored via g_object_set_qdata() and removes the data from object without invoking its destroy() function (if any was set). Usually, calling this function is only required to update user data pointers with a destroy notifier, for example:

thawNotify
void thawNotify()

Reverts the effect of a previous call to g_object_freeze_notify(). The freeze count is decreased on object and when it reaches zero, queued "notify" signals are emitted.

unref
void unref()

Decreases the reference count of object. When its reference count drops to 0, the object is finalized (i.e. its memory is freed).

watchClosure
void watchClosure(Closure closure)

This function essentially limits the life time of the closure to the life time of the object. That is, when the object is finalized, the closure is invalidated by calling Closure.invalidate on it, in order to prevent invocations of the closure with a finalized (nonexisting) object. Also, g_object_ref() and g_object_unref() are added as marshal guards to the closure, to ensure that an extra reference count is held on object during invocation of the closure. Usually, this function will be called on closures that use this object as closure data.

weakRef
void weakRef(GWeakNotify notify, void* data)

Adds a weak reference callback to an object. Weak references are used for notification when an object is finalized. They are called "weak references" because they allow you to safely hold a pointer to an object without calling g_object_ref() (g_object_ref() adds a strong reference, that is, forces the object to stay alive).

weakUnref
void weakUnref(GWeakNotify notify, void* data)

Removes a weak reference callback to an object.

clearObject
void clearObject(ref ObjectG objectPtr)

Clears a reference to a GObject

From ActionGroupIF

getActionGroupStruct
GActionGroup* getActionGroupStruct(bool transferOwnership = false)

Get the main Gtk struct

getStruct
void* getStruct()

the main Gtk struct as a void*

getType
GType getType()
actionAdded
void actionAdded(string actionName)

Emits the action-added signal on action_group.

actionEnabledChanged
void actionEnabledChanged(string actionName, bool enabled)

Emits the action-enabled-changed signal on action_group.

actionRemoved
void actionRemoved(string actionName)

Emits the action-removed signal on action_group.

actionStateChanged
void actionStateChanged(string actionName, Variant state)

Emits the action-state-changed signal on action_group.

activateAction
void activateAction(string actionName, Variant parameter)

Activate the named action within action_group.

changeActionState
void changeActionState(string actionName, Variant value)

Request for the state of the named action within action_group to be changed to value.

getActionEnabled
bool getActionEnabled(string actionName)

Checks if the named action within action_group is currently enabled.

getActionParameterType
VariantType getActionParameterType(string actionName)

Queries the type of the parameter that must be given when activating the named action within action_group.

getActionState
Variant getActionState(string actionName)

Queries the current state of the named action within action_group.

getActionStateHint
Variant getActionStateHint(string actionName)

Requests a hint about the valid range of values for the state of the named action within action_group.

getActionStateType
VariantType getActionStateType(string actionName)

Queries the type of the state of the named action within action_group.

hasAction
bool hasAction(string actionName)

Checks if the named action exists within action_group.

listActions
string[] listActions()

Lists the actions contained within action_group.

queryAction
bool queryAction(string actionName, out bool enabled, out VariantType parameterType, out VariantType stateType, out Variant stateHint, out Variant state)

Queries all aspects of the named action within an action_group.

addOnActionAdded
gulong addOnActionAdded(void delegate(string, ActionGroupIF) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

Signals that a new action was just added to the group. This signal is emitted after the action has been added and is now visible.

addOnActionEnabledChanged
gulong addOnActionEnabledChanged(void delegate(string, bool, ActionGroupIF) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

Signals that the enabled status of the named action has changed.

addOnActionRemoved
gulong addOnActionRemoved(void delegate(string, ActionGroupIF) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

Signals that an action is just about to be removed from the group. This signal is emitted before the action is removed, so the action is still visible and can be queried from the signal handler.

addOnActionStateChanged
gulong addOnActionStateChanged(void delegate(string, Variant, ActionGroupIF) dlg, ConnectFlags connectFlags = cast(ConnectFlags)0)

Signals that the state of the named action has changed.

From ActionMapIF

getActionMapStruct
GActionMap* getActionMapStruct(bool transferOwnership = false)

Get the main Gtk struct

getStruct
void* getStruct()

the main Gtk struct as a void*

getType
GType getType()
addAction
void addAction(ActionIF action)

Adds an action to the action_map.

addActionEntries
void addActionEntries(GActionEntry[] entries, void* userData)

A convenience function for creating multiple gio.SimpleAction instances and adding them to a GActionMap

lookupAction
ActionIF lookupAction(string actionName)

Looks up the action with the name action_name in action_map.

removeAction
void removeAction(string actionName)

Removes the named action from the action map.

Meta

Since

2.28